Rabu, 21 September 2011

HAMIL DENGAN PENYAKIT JANTUNG

Penyakit Jantung Pada Kehamilan
1) Pengertian
Kehamilan akan menimbulkan perubahan pada sistem kardiovaskuler. Wanita dengan penyakit kardiovaskuler dan menjadi hamil, akan terjadi pengaruh timbal balik yang dapat merugikan kesempatan hidup wanita tersebut.
Pada kehamilan dengan jantung normal, wanita dapat menyesuaikan kerjanya terhadap perubahan-perubahan secara fisiologis.

Perubahan tersebut disebabkan oleh :
a) Hipervolemia: dimulai sejak kehamilan 8 minggu dan mencapai puncaknya pada 28-32 minggu lalu menetap
b) Jantung dan diafragma terdorong ke atas oleh karena pembesaran rahim.

Dalam kehamilan :
1. Denyut jantung dan nadi: meningkat
2. Pukulan jantung: meningkat
3. Tekanan darah: menurun sedikit.

Maka dapat dipahami bahwa kehamilan dapat memperbesar penyakit jantung bahkan dapat menyebabkan payah jantung (dekompensasi kordis). Frekuensi penyakit jantung dalam kehamilan berkisar antara 1-4%. Penyakit yang paling banyak dijumpai adalah penyakit hipertensi, tirotoksikosis, dan anemia.

Pengaruh kehamilan terhadap penyakit jantung, saat-saat yang berbahaya bagi penderita adalah :
1. Pada kehamilan 32-36 minggu, dimana volume darah mencapai puncaknya (hipervolumia).
2. Pada kala II, dimana wanita mengerahkan tenaga untuk mengedan dan memerlukan kerja jantung yang berat.
3. Pada Pasca persalinan, dimana darah dari ruang intervilus plasenta yang sudah lahir, sekarang masuk ke dalam sirkulasi darah ibu.
4. Pada masa nifas, karena ada kemungkinan infeksi

Pengaruh penyakit jantung terhadap kehamilan :
1) Dapat terjadi abortus.
2) Prematuritas
3) Dismaturitas
4) Lahir dengan Apgar rendah atau lahir mati.
5) Kematian janin dalam rahim (KJDR).

Patofisiologi
Wanita normal yang mengalami kehamilan akan mengalami perubahan fisiologik dan anatomik pada berbagai sistem organ yang berhubungan dengan kehamilan akibat terjadi perubahan hormonal di dalam tubuhnya, Perubahan yang terjadi dapat mencakup sistem gastrointestinal, respirasi, kardiovaskuler, urogenital, muskuloskeletal dan saraf Perubahan yang terjadi pada satu sistem dapat saling memberi pengaruh pada sistem lainnya dan dalam menanggulangi kelainan yang terjadi harus mempertimbangkan perubahan yang terjadi pada masing-masing sistem, Perubahan ini terjadi akibat kebutuhan metabolik yang disebabkan kebutuhan janin, plasenta dan rahim.

Adaptasi normal yang dialami seorang wanita yang mengalami kehamilan termasuk sistem kardiovaskuler akan memberikan gejala dan tanda yang sukar dibedakan dari gejala penyakit jantung. Keadaan ini yang menyebabkan beberapa kelainan yang tidak dapat ditoleransi pada saat kehamilan. Pada wanita hamil akan terjadi perubahan hemodinamik karena peningkatan volume darah sebesar 30-50% yang dimulai sejak trimester pertama dan mencapai puncaknya pada usia kehamilan 32-34 minggu dan menetap sampai aterm. Sebagian besar peningkatan volume darah ini menyebabkan meningkatnya kapasitas rahim, mammae, ginjal, otot polos dan sistem vascular kulit dan tidak memberi beban sirkulasi pada wanita hamil yang sehat. Peningkatan volume plasma (30-50%) relatif lebih besar dibanding peningkatan sel darah (20-30%) mengakibatkan terjadinya hemodilusi dan menurunya konsentrasi hemoglobin. Peningkatan volume darah ini mempunyai 2 tujuan yaitu pertama mempermudah pertukaran gas pernafasan, nutrien dan metabolik ibu dan janin dan kedua mengurangi akibat kehilangan darah yang banyak saat kelahiran.

Peningkatan volume darah ini mengakibatkan cardiac output saat istirahat akan meningkat sampai 40%. Peningkatan cardiac output yang terjadi mencapai puncaknya pada usia kehamilan 20 minggu. Pada pertengahn sampai akhir kehamilan cardiac output dipengaruhi oleh posisi tubuh. Sebagai akibat pembesaran uterus yang mengurangi venous return dari ekstremitas bawah.

Diagnosis a. Elektrokardiografi
Pemeriksaan EKG sangat aman dan dapat membantu menjawab pertanyaan rang spesifik. Kehamilan dapat menyebabkan interpretasi dari variasi gelombang ST-T lebih sulit dari yang biasa, Depresi segmen ST inferior sering didapati pada wanita hamil normal. Pergeseran aksis QRS kekiri sering didapati, tetapi deviasi aksis kekiri yang nyata (-30°) menyatakan adanya kelainan jantung.
b) Ekokardiografi
Pemeriksaan ekokardiografi, termasuk Doppler sangat aman dan tanpa risiko terhadap ibu dan janin. Pemeriksaan tranesofageal ekokardiografi pada wanita hamil tidak dianjurkan karena risiko anestesi selama prosedur pemeriksaan radiografi. Semua pemeriksaan radiografi harus dihindarkan terutama pada awal kehamilan. Pemeriksaan radiografi mempunyai risiko terhadap organogenesis abnormal pada janin, atau malignancy pada masa kanak-kanak terutama leukemia. Jika pemeriksaan sangat diperlukan sebaiknya dilakukan pada kehamilan lanjut, dosis radiasi seminimal mungkin dan perlindungan terhadap janin seoptimal mungkin.
c) Radionuklide
Beberapa pemeriksaan radionuklide akan mengikat albumin dan tidak akan mencapai fetus, pemisahan akan terjadi dan eksposure terhadap janin mungkin terjadi. Sebaiknya pemeriksaan ini dihindarkan. Adakalanya pemeriksaan ventilasi pulmonal/perfusi scan atau scan perfusi miokard thallium diperlukan saat kehamilan. Diperkirakan eksposur terhadap fetua rendah.
d) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Meskipun tidak tersedia informasi mengenai keamanan prosedur MRI pada evaluasi wanita hamil dengan kehamilan, dilaporkan tidak didapati efek fetal yang merugikan bila digunakan pada tujuan yang lain. Pemeriksaan ini mesti dihindarkan pada wanita dengan implantasi pacu jantung atau defibrillator.

Klasifikasi
Klasifikasi tidak hanya didasarkan gejala klinis. Klasifikasi berikut didasarkan pada Disability yang lampau dan sekarang serta tidak dipengaruhi oleh tanda-tanda fisik :
1) Kelas I
Tidak teganggu (Uncompromised), pasien dengan penyakit jantung dan tidak ada pembatasan dalam aktivitas fisik. Mereka tidak memperlihatkan gejala insufisiensi jantung atau merasakan nyeri angina.
2) Kelas II
Agak terganggu (Slightly compromised) : Pasien dengan penyakit jantung dan sedikit pembatasan aktivitas fisik. Pada wanita ini merasa tidak nyaman (Discomfort) dalam bentuk rasa lelah berlebihan, palpitasi, dispnea, atau nyeri angina.
3) Kelas III
Jelas terganggu ( Markedly Compromised) : Pasien dengan pembatasan penyakit jantung dan pembatasan nyata aktifitas fisik. Mereka nyaman dalam keadaan istirahat, tetapi aktivitas yang kurang dari biasa menyebabkan rasa tidak nyaman berupa kelelahan berlebihan, palpitasi, dispnea, atau nyeri angina.
4) Kelas IV
Terganggu parah (Severely Compromised) : Pasien dengan penyakit jantung dan tidak mampu melakukan aktifitas fisik apapun tanpa merasa tidak nyaman. Gejala insufisiensi jantung atau angina dapat timbul bahkan dalam keadaan istirahat, dan apabila mereka melakukan aktifitas fisik apapun, rasa tidak nyaman bertambah.

Penatalaksanaan Pada Kehamilan
1. Memberikan pengertian kepada ibu hamil untuk melaksanakan pengawasan antenatal yang teratur.
2. Kerjasama dengan ahli penyakit dalam atau kardiolog.
3. Pencegahan terhadap kenaikan berat badan dan retensi air yang berlebihan. Jika terdapat anemia, harus diobati.
4. Timbulnya hipertensi atau hipotensi akan memberatkan kerja jantung, hal ini harus diobati.
5. Bila terjadi keluhan yang agak berat, seperti sesak napas, infeksi saluran pernapasan, dan sianosis, penderita harus dirawat di rumah sakit.
6. Skema kunjungan antenatal: setiap 2 minggu menjelang kehamilan 28 minggu dan 1 kali seminggu setelahnya.
7. Harus cukup istirahat, cukup tidur, diet rendah garam, dan pembatasan jumlah cairan.
8. Pengobatan khusus bergantung pada kelas penyakit :
a. Kelas I
Tidak memerlukan pengobatan tambahan.
b. Kelas II
Biasanya tidak memerlukan terapi tambahan. Mengurangi kerja fisik terutama antara kehamilan 28-36 minggu.
c. Kelas III
Memerlukan digitalisasi atau obat lainnya. Sebaiknya dirawat di rumah sakit sejak kehamilan 28-30 minggu.
d. Kelas IV
Harus dirawat di rumah sakit dan diberikan pengobatan, bekerjasama dengan kardiolog.

Pada Persalinan
Penderita kelas I dan kelas II biasanya dapat meneruskan kehamilan dan bersalin per vaginam, namun dengan pengawasan yang baik serta kerjasama dengan ahli penyakit dalam.
a) Bila ada tanda-tanda payah jantung (dekompensasi kordis) diobati dengan digitalis. Memberikan sedilanid dosis awal 0,8 mg dan ditambah sampai dosis 1,2-1,6 mg intravena secara perlahan-lahan. Jika perlu, dapat diulang 1-2 kali dalam dua jam. Di kamar bersalin harus tersedia tabung berisi oksigen, morfin, dan suntikan diuretikum.
b) Kala II yaitu kala yang kritis bagi penderita. Bila tidak timbul tanda-tanda payah jantung, persalinan dapat ditunggu, diawasi dan ditolong secara spontan. Dalam 20-30 menit, bila janin belum lahir, kala II segera diperpendek dengan ekstraksi vakum atau forseps. Kalau sosio sesarea dengan lokal anestesi/lumbal/kaudal di bawah pengawasan beberapa ahli multidisiplin.
c) Untuk menghilangkan rasa sakit boleh diberikan obat analgesik seperti petidin dan lain-lain. Jangan diberikan barbiturat (luminal) atau morfin bila ditaksir bayi akan lahir dalam beberapa jam.
d) Kala II biasanya berjalan seperti biasa. Pemberian ergometrin dengan hati-hati, biasanya sintometrin intramuskuler adalah aman.

Penderita kelas III dan IV tidak boleh hamil karena kehamilan sangat membahayakan jiwanya. Bila hamil, segera konsultasikan ke dokter ahli atau sedini mungkin abortus buatan medikalis. Pada kasus tertentu tubektomi. Bila tidak mau sterilisasi, dianjurkan memakai kontrasepsi yang baik adalah IUD (AKDR). Penatalaksanaan kelas III dan IV, pada penyakit yang tidak terlalu parah, dianjurkan analgesia epidural. Kelahiran pervaginam dianjurkan pada sebagian besar kasus yang ada indikasi obstetrinya. Keputusan untuk melakukan SC juga harus mempertimbangkan penyakit jantung spesifiknya, kondisi ibu keseluruhan, ketersediaan dan pengalaman ahli anestesi, serta fasilitas yang ada.

Pada Masa Nifas
a) Setelah bayi lahir, pederita dapat tiba-tiba jatuh kolaps, yang disebabkan darah tiba-tiba membajiri tubuh ibu sehingga kerja jantung menjadi sangat bertambah. Perdarahan merupakan komplikasi yang cukup berbahaya.
b) Karena itu penderita harus tetap diawasi dan dirawat sekurang-kurangnya 2 minggu setelah bersalin.

Pada masa laktasi
a) Laktasi diperbolehkan pada wanita dengan penyakit jantung kelas I dan II yang sanggup melakukan kerja fisik.
b) Laktasi dilarang pada wanita dengan penyakit jantung kelas III dan IV.

Prognosis
1. Bagi ibu

Bergantung pada beratnya penyakit, umur dan penyulit-penyulit lain. Pengawasan pengobatan, pimpinan persalinan, dan kerjasama dengan penderita serta kepatuhan dalam mentaati larangan, ikut menentukan prognosis.
Angka kematian maternal secara keseluruhan : 1-5%
Angka kematian maternal bagi penderita berat : 15%
2. Bagi bayi
Bila penyakit jantung tidak terlalu berat, tidak begitu mempengaruhi kematian perinatal. Namun pada penyakit yang berat, prognosis akan buruk karena akan terjadi gawat janin.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
1) Hanifa, 2002, Buku Panduan Praktis Maternal dan Neonatal, YBPSP
2) Hidayat Wijayanegara,1998, Pedoman Diagnosis dan Terapi Obstetri dan Ginekologi, RSHS
3) R Haraidi, 2004, Ilmu kedokteran fetomaternal, Jilid II hal 705-720
4) R. Haryono Roeshadi, 2004, gangguan dan Penyulit pada Masa kehamilan
5) Sanif Medial , 2008, Pendekatan Klinis penyakit jantung Pada masa Kehamilan.
6) Berbagai sumber


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